African American History
1946 to 1964
1946 - Executive Order 9808: First President's Committee on Civil Rights Established
EXECUTIVE ORDER 9808. ESTABLISHING THE PRESIDENT'S COMMITTEE ON CIVIL RIGHTS WHEREAS the preservation of civil rights guaranteed by the ...
July 26, 1948 - President Truman Orders Integration of U.S. Armed Services
In 1948, President Truman ordered the integration of the U.S. Armed Forces, an early step in bridging the military's racial divide.
Know the history behind the desegregation of the U.S. Military
Why did Truman desegregate the military?
Truman's decision to desegregate the military was not an easy one. President Harry Truman would challenge The Jim Crow laws and give the Civil Rights Movement momentum. This is surprising given his prior personal history. Truman proves that positive change can come from an unlikely source. Dr. Byrd uses this lesson from history as a reminder and to offer some hope to those who may feel dismayed by the outcome of the 2016 Presidential Election or any future election that does not go their way. For more information, check out these resources (Affiliate): Truman by David McCullough: https://amzn.to/2KLXMkx Segregated Soldiers: Military Training at Historically Black Colleges in the Jim Crow South by Marcus S. Cox: https://amzn.to/2jNjVT1 The Man Called Brown Condor: The Forgotten History of an African American Fighter Pilot: https://amzn.to/2G4jGMe The Divided Skies: Establishing Segregated Flight Training at Tuskegee, Alabama, 1934-1942 by Robert J. Jakeman: https://amzn.to/2jO5le2
EXECUTIVE ORDER 9808 ESTABLISHING THE PRESIDENT'S COMMITTEE ON CIVIL RIGHTS. WHEREAS the preservation of civil rights guaranteed by the ...
Executive Order 9981, signed by President Harry S Truman on July 26, 1948, launched a ... Planning a lesson or unit on the desegregation of the military?
April 15, 1947 - Breaking the Color Line in Baseball
History through Hollywood
In 1947, Jackie Robinson becomes the first African-American to play in Major League Baseball in the modern era when he was signed by the Brooklyn Dodgers and faces considerable racism in the process.
Director: Brian Helgeland
Stars: Chadwick Boseman, T.R. Knight, Harrison Ford
Jackie Robinson: The First African American to Play in the MLB | Mini Bio | BIO
While serving in the military, Jackie Robinson was arrested for refusing to move to the back of a segregated bus. In 1947, he made history when his debut with the Brooklyn Dodgers ended racial segregation in Major League Baseball. #Biography #JackieRobinson
Jump to: Preparation Procedure Evaluation In this lesson students draw on their previous studies ... Lesson Plan Baseball, Race Relations and Jackie Robinson.
The Jackie Robinson Story (1950) | Ruby Dee
The Jackie Robinson Story is a 1950 biographical film directed by Alfred E. Green (who had directed The Jolson Story, "one of the biggest hits of the 40s") and starring Jackie Robinson as himself. The film focuses on Robinson's struggle with the abuse of bigots as he becomes the first African-American Major League Baseball player of the modern era. The film is among the list of films in the public domain in the United States.
Jackie Robinson's Speech - October 15, 1972
In his final public appearance, Jackie Robinson spoke of his hopes for the future of baseball ahead of the second game of the 1972 World Series between the A's and Reds. He knew then, as we know now, that there is still work to be done. / Check out http://m.mlb.com/video for our full archive of videos, and subscribe on YouTube for the best, exclusive MLB content: http://youtube.com/MLB
Jun 16, 2016 — In addition to its Teaching with Documents "Beyond the Playing Field" lesson plan, which focuses on Jackie Robinson as a civil rights advocate after leaving baseball, there are additional lessons with documents about desegregation, including the landmark Supreme Court case, Brown v. Board of Education.
Larry Doby Biography
A Brief Biography on Negro League Great Larry Doby
Larry Doby: More Than Second
Larry Doby may have been the second African-American to play Major League Baseball and the second African-American manager of an MLB team, but he was much more than that. Tonight we celebrate a man who was more than second. Join us for Larry Doby Night presented by Enbridge.
Larry Doby delivers Hall of Fame induction speech
Larry Doby delivers his speech after being inducted into the Hall of Fame by the Veterans Committee in 1998
Although Larry Doby had a stellar career in baseball--playing in six All-Star games ... unloading ships and organizing recreational activities for other servicemen.
Larry Doby talks about the importance of being respected.
http://www.argentaimages.com Larry Doby, the first African American to play in the American League, talks about the importance of being respected. Doby only respected the people who treated him with respect.
Jan 4, 2012 — Larry Doby is best remembered for becoming the first black player in the ... hatched a plan for Doby to join Cleveland right after the 1947 All-Star break. ... “Larry is the stuff of legends: Struggles of Doby a lesson for any time,” ...
Dec 19, 2018 — He was the black man from Paterson, N.J., who integrated the American League in 1947, just six weeks after Jackie Robinson had done the same ...
1948 - Executive Order 9981:
Desegregation of the Armed Forces
Breadcrumb. Home · Educational Resources · Teacher Lesson Plans; Truman and Executive Order 9981: Idealistic, Pragmatic, or Shrewd Politician?
Executive Order 9981: Desegregating U.S. Armed Forces | History
Signed by President Harry Truman on July 26, 1948, Executive Order 9981 abolished racial discrimination in the U.S. Armed Forces.
Executive Order 9981, signed by President Harry S Truman on July 26, 1948, launched a ... Planning a lesson or unit on the desegregation of the military?
President Truman Desegregates the Military (1948)
Executive Order 9981 was an executive order issued on July 26, 1948, by President Harry S. Truman. It abolished racial discrimination in the United States Armed Forces and eventually led to the end of segregation in the services.
1. It is hereby declared to be the policy of the President that there shall be equality of treatment and opportunity for all persons in the armed services without regard ...
1950 - Ralph Bunche, First African-American Recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize
RALPH BUNCHE: ROLE MODEL? LEADER? HERO? Teaching Strategies and Student Activities. Lesson Plans Ideas (brief). PLAN SUMMARY.
Ralph Bunche: Hero for Peace
A changemaker who was the first African American to win the Nobel Peace Prize, Ralph Bunche is considered the ‘Father of Peacekeeping’ for his contributions to the United Nations. And yet his is not a name many would recognise.
free world”. Ralph Bunche was born in Michigan. ... In 1948 this plan was dropped and fighting between Arabs and Israelis intensified. ... This is a page of lesson.
The legacy of Ralph Bunche, in his own words
To tell the story of his views on peace and social justice, four UCLA faculty read from Ralph J. Bunche speeches, given throughout his lifetime. Learn more: https://ucla.in/2OBpA0J
Character Sketches: Ralph Bunche
United Nations - Some highlights from the career of Ralph Bunche, the American politician and diplomat who served as the UN Mediator on Palestine. He was awarded with Nobel Peace Prize
Ralph Bunche Story told by Walter Mosley
The story of Ralph Bunche told through The Honorable Assemblyman Walter T. Mosley, recipient of the Ralph Bunche Award that recognizes African American activists who have demonstrated significant leadership in advancing the U.S. – Israel relationship as well as critical issues affecting our communities here at home. For a complete transcript, visit http://bit.ly/2Igy8Ch
The lesson plans offered here are designed to help you use the Ralph Bunche: An American Odyssey video and this companion Web site in secondary social ...
But whatever the outcome of the present military struggle in Korea in which the United Nations and Chinese troops are now locked, Korea provides the lesson ...
1952 - Invisible Man by Ralph Ellison
Ralph Ellison: Invisible Man, Celebrated Writer | Black History Documentary | Timeline
In writing INVISIBLE MAN in the late 1940s, Ralph Ellison brought onto the scene a new kind of black protagonist, one at odds with the characters of the leading black novelist at the time, Richard Wright. If Wright’s characters were angry, uneducated, and inarticulate — the consequences of a society that oppressed them — Ellison’s Invisible Man was educated, articulate, and self-aware. Ellison’s view was that the African-American culture and sensibility was far from the downtrodden, unsophisticated picture presented by writers, sociologists and politicians, both black and white. He posited instead that blacks had created their own traditions, rituals, and a history that formed a cohesive and complex culture that was the source of a full sense of identity. When the protagonist in INVISIBLE MAN comes upon a yam seller (named Petie Wheatstraw, after the black folklore figure) on the streets of Harlem and remembers his childhood in a flood of emotion, his proclamation “I yam what I yam!” is Ellison’s expression of embracing one’s culture as the way to freedom.
Students explore themes of racism, identity, and truth, through Ralph Ellison's acclaimed 1952 novel, Invisible Man. ... Intellectual Prep for English Lessons.
Invisible Man: Crash Course Literature 308
This week, we’re on to reading Ralph Ellison’s great novel about the black experience in America after World War II, Invisible Man. John will teach you about Ellison’s nameless narrator, and his attempts to find his way in a social order that dehumanizes him and renders him invisible at every turn. Ellison’s novel follows its hero from his childhood in the south to his many attempts to make sense of the world in New York City, and it takes him through, explosions, activism, and riots.
Dec 4, 2016 — “I am invisible, understand, simply because people refuse to see me,” Ellison writes in the prologue. The unnamed black protagonist of the novel, ...
Feb 20, 2013 — Students will: Read and discuss the novel “Invisible Man” Write an essay on the theme of the personal experience of invisibility. Examine their own communities to bring to light groups that might be considered “invisible”. Connect personal experience to an understanding of larger societal structures.
May 17, 1954 - Brown v Board of Education
LEARNING OBJECTIVES. Describe segregation and the 14th Amendment “equal protection of the law” Identify the main arguments put forth in the case. Describe the Supreme Court's decision and analysis. Identify the impact of the Court's decision. Write compound sentences.
May 17, 1954 - Brown v. Board of Education
Brown v. Board of Education marks 63 years today. The landmark decision declared segregation in public schools unconstitutional. In this edition of Moments in Civil Rights History, a collaboration of Comcast and the Equal Justice Initiative, "separate but equal" suffers a major setback, while the fight for racial equity in the United States takes a meaningful step forward.
Brown v. Board of Education | BRI's Homework Help Series
Brown v. Board of Education was a case brought to the Supreme Court in 1954 after Linda Brown, an African American student in Kansas, was denied access to the white-only schools nearby her house. Future Supreme Court Justice Thurgood Marshall was the lawyer for the case, and argued that segregated schools were inherently unequal. Ultimately, the Supreme Court ruled in favor of Linda Brown and declared segregation unconstitutional. This is one of the landmark cases that led to the passage of the Civil Rights Act in 1964. For Lessons to go along with this video, check out the links below: Click here for a lesson on the Brown v. Board of Education case. http://voicesofhistory.org/supreme-co...
Use this lesson plan to learn more about the life of Linda Brown and the impact of the Brown v. Board of Education case in the U.S. today.
Through the lesson, students learn about the people behind the case, construct an argument, and evaluate the significance of Brown v. Board of Education. ... with the National Standards for Civics and Government. Download the lesson plan.
Brown v. Board at 65: A Promise Unfulfilled
Today is the 65th Anniversary of the Supreme Court’s landmark decision in Brown v Board, but America’s public schools are more segregated now than at any time since the 1960s. How did we get here? What do we do know?
Jun 26, 2017 — Teaching Activities Standards Correlations This lesson correlates to the ... South Carolina, and was argued by Thurgood Marshall, counsel for the NAACP. ... Brown v. Board of Education is the collective title for five separate ...
Thurgood Marshall and Brown v. Board of Education
Thurgood Marshall was a pioneering civil rights attorney who won the landmark case Brown v. Board of Education, helping to end segregation in American schools.
A Conversation on the Constitution: Brown v. Board of Education
www.annenbergclassroom.org – Supreme Court Justices Stephen G. Breyer, Sandra Day O’Connor and Anthony M. Kennedy discuss with high school students the landmark case Brown v. Board of Education that ended racial segregation in schools. They explore the background of the case, the role of Thurgood Marshall, how Brown v. Board of Education was decided, and the events following the unanimous ruling that said that “separate education facilities are inherently unequal.”
May 18, 1955 - Mary McLeod Bethune dies
Pioneering educator and college founder Mary McLeod Bethune set educational standards for today's black colleges and served as an advisor to President ...
Mary McLeod Bethune
This profile will show how Mary Jane McLeod Bethune, born to poor cotton farmers in Mayesville, SC, would brilliantly start a school of her own with just $1.50, which became an internationally recognized university. Dr. Bethune influenced important African-American Political leaders of the day, created a “Black Cabinet”, and was an advisor to several U.S. Presidents, among them, President Franklin D. Roosevelt.
Bethune. Born on a farm near Mayesville, South Carolina in 1875, Mary McLeod Bethune, the 15th child of former slaves, rose from humble beginnings to become a world-renowned educator, civil and human rights leader, champion for women and young people, and an advisor to five U.S. presidents.
Jul 17, 2020 — Mary McLeod Bethune used the power of education, political activism, and civil service to achieve racial and gender equality throughout the ...
Dovey Roundtree: Meeting Mary McCloud Bethune
Destination Freedom - One Out Of Seventeen: The Story Of Mary McLeod Bethune (November 14, 1948)
Destination Freedom ran from 1948 to 1950 and was the story of the triumph of African American civil rights. Richard Durham's Destination Freedom premiered on June 27, 1948 on Chicago radio and his vision was to re-educate the masses on the image of African American society, since it was tainted with stereotypes that threatened to rip its culture apart. Some of the heroes of the fight for civil rights were, Dr. Martin Luther King Jr., Malcolm X, Frederick Douglas, Harriet Tubman, and Lena Horne.
1955 - Emmett Till Lynched
The Murder of Emmett Till
FROM THE COLLECTION: CIVIL RIGHTS
In August 1955, a 14-year-old black boy whistled at a white woman in a grocery store in Money, Mississippi. Emmett Till, a teen from Chicago, didn't understand that he had broken the unwritten laws of the Jim Crow South until three days later, when two white men dragged him from his bed in the dead of night, beat him brutally and then shot him in the head. Although his killers were arrested and charged with murder, they were both acquitted quickly by an all-white, all-male jury. Shortly afterwards, the defendants sold their story, including a detailed account of how they murdered Till, to a journalist. The murder and the trial horrified the nation and the world. Till's death was a spark that helped mobilize the Civil Rights movement. Three months after his body was pulled from the Tallahatchie River, the Montgomery bus boycott began.
Chapter 1 | The Murder of Emmett Till | American Experience | PBS
Emmett Till's murder and the acquittal of his killers mobilized the Civil Rights Movement. Learn more about THE MURDER OF EMMETT TILL, including where to watch the documentary: https://www.pbs.org/wgbh/americanexpe... In August 1955, a 14-year-old black boy whistled at a white woman in a grocery store in Money, Mississippi. Emmett Till, a teen from Chicago, didn't understand that he had broken the unwritten laws of the Jim Crow South until three days later, when two white men dragged him from his bed in the dead of night, beat him brutally and then shot him in the head. Although his killers were arrested and charged with murder, they were both acquitted quickly by an all-white, all-male jury. Shortly afterwards, the defendants sold their story, including a detailed account of how they murdered Till, to a journalist. The murder and the trial horrified the nation and the world. Till's death was a spark that helped mobilize the Civil Rights movement. Three months after his body was pulled from the Tallahatchie River, the Montgomery bus boycott began.
This unit uses the PBS documentary film The Murder of Emmett Till to deepen students' understanding of this pivotal event in the history of race relations in the ...
FBI Records: The Vault - Emmett Till
Emmett Louis Till (1945-1955) was murdered while visiting relatives in LeFlore County, Mississippi. In 1955, two suspects were tried for the murder, but acquitted. In May 2004, the FBI reopened the investigation to determine if other individuals were involved. This release consists of the FBI’s 2006 “Prosecutive Report” on the matter and includes a type-copy of the transcript of the first trial as an appendix.
Emmett Till Part 01 of 02
Emmett Till Part 02 of 02
Jan 31, 2017 — ... United States will include a lesson on Emmett Till as an introduction to the civil rights movement or as part of their Black History Month plans.
Medgar Evers, WWII veteran and civil rights activist, was murdered by a white supremacist in Jackson, Mississippi. Explore More Teaching Materials. Time period.
History Through Song
2004: The Murder of Emmett Till
In 2004, 60 Minutes correspondent Ed Bradley reported on the 1955 murder of 14-year-old Emmett Till.
The Body Of Emmett Till | 100 Photos | TIME
Emmett Till was brutally killed in the summer of 1955. At his funeral, his mother forced the world to reckon with the brutality of American racism.
Lesson 1.6 : Lynching and the Presumption of Innocence ... On August 20, 1955, fourteen-year-old Emmett Till boarded a train in Chicago and headed for ...
65 years after Emmett Till's death, still no federal law against lynching
Till was only 14 when he was murdered after being accused of offending a white woman in her family’s store. Now, in the wake of George Floyd’s death, there are renewed calls for an anti-lynching law.
1955-1956 - Rosa Parks and the Montgomery Bus Boycott
The 1955-1956 Montgomery Bus Boycott
Sixty years ago today, Rosa Parks and 17,000 boycotters celebrated victory when the Supreme Court ruled public bus segregation unconstitutional. That decision came nearly a year after Parks' courageous stand against discrimination on a Montgomery, Ala., bus — an action that united members of the community and reshaped the nation. In this edition of Moments in Civil Rights History, we meet a young Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., who led the boycott with persistence in the face of relentless harassment, intimidation and violence.
Rosa Parks and the Montgomery Bus Boycott: 60 Years Later - Fast Facts | History
On December 1, 1955 Rosa Parks refused to give up her seat on a bus in Montgomery, AL and sparked the American Civil Rights movement of the 20th century. #Biography
Through two primary source activities and a short video, students will learn about ... In this lesson, students will get beyond the myths of Rosa Parks' arrest on a ... Gayle - While the Montgomery Bus Boycott was underway, a court case was ...
Montgomery Bus Boycott |American Freedom Stories | Biography
For 382 days, almost the entire African-American population of Montgomery, Alabama, including leaders Martin Luther King Jr. and Rosa Parks, refused to ride on segregated buses, a turning point in the American civil rights movement.
Rosa Parks - Civil Rights Activist | Mini Bio | BIO
Civil rights activist Rosa Parks (February 4, 1913 to October 24, 2005) refused to surrender her seat to a white passenger on a segregated Montgomery, Alabama bus, which spurred on the 381-day Montgomery Bus Boycott that helped launch nationwide efforts to end segregation of public facilities. The city of Montgomery had no choice but to lift the law requiring segregation on public buses. Rosa Parks received many accolades during her lifetime, including the NAACP's highest award.
TED: The real story of Rosa Parks -- and why we need to confront myths about black history | David Ikard
Visit http://TED.com to get our entire library of TED Talks, transcripts, translations, personalized talk recommendations and more. Black history taught in US schools is often watered-down, riddled with inaccuracies and stripped of its context and rich, full-bodied historical figures. Equipped with the real story of Rosa Parks, professor David Ikard highlights how making the realities of race more benign and digestible harms us all -- and emphasizes the power and importance of historical accuracy.
The Montgomery bus boycott serves as an ideal historical model for teaching ... Typically, educators focus on Rosa Parks' arrest and the speeches by Martin ...
Students learn from pre-school through high school that Rosa Parks refused to give up her seat in Montgomery, the buses were desegregated, and the Civil Rights Movement was launched
o Rosa Parks on a bus boycott reenactment ... This lesson begins with the conditions that led to the Montgomery Bus Boycott. The ... Procedures/Activities:.
Martin Luther King (1929-1968)
Apr 14, 2015 — Following guidance from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and state and local public health authorities, park operations continue ...
Martin Luther King, Jr. - Minister & Civil Rights Activist | Biography
Martin Luther King Jr. was a Baptist minister and civil-rights activist who had a seismic impact on race relations in the United States, playing a pivotal role in ending the legal segregation of African-American citizens in the United States, and the creation of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965. #Biography
Martin Luther King, Jr - The Other America (1967)
By 1967, war, racism, and poverty had become the dominant issues confronting America and the Freedom Movement. On April 4, Dr. King forcefully speaks out against the Vietnam War with "Beyond Vietnam: A Time to Break Silence," delivered at Riverside Church in New York City. Ten days later, in a speech at Stanford University titled "The Other America," Dr. King addresses race, poverty and economic justice. (At various times in 1967 and '68 he gave slightly different versions of "The Other America" to other audiences. - www.crmvet.org
The Best of Martin Luther King Jr. Compilation
"Darkness cannot drive out darkness; only light can do that. Hate cannot drive out hate; only love can do that." - MLK
Martin Luther King Jr. “I've Been to the Mountaintop” - April 3, 1968 - Final Famous Speech
MLK's Final, Great Speech... delivered April 3, 1968 at Mason Temple in Memphis, Tennessee.
Martin Luther King dreamed of a world more tolerant that the one he lived in. These five lessons are designed to teach students about Kings dream of tolerance.
This lesson examines the power of nonviolent direct actions as an instrument to change unjust laws. Focusing on King's Letter from Birmingham Jail, students ...
Mar 30, 2018 — King's famous “I Have a Dream” speech, we've compiled some of our best MLK resources, as well as lessons and texts from our friends in the ...
Civil Rights Leaders
Ella Jo Baker was born on December 13, 1903, in Norfolk, Virginia. Growing up in North Carolina, she developed a sense for social justice early on, due in part to ...
Ella Baker - 'The Mother of the Civil Rights Movement'
After graduating from Shaw University, Ella Baker moved to New York City and began her career as a grassroots organizer. Joining the NAACP in 1940, the Virginia native assisted in developing some of the brightest minds in the Civil Rights Movement. Baker charged people like Rosa Parks to stand up and speak out. Through her organizing efforts, she assisted Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. with the creation of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference, which was helping to build the Civil Rights Movement. After a string of sit-ins in the 1960s, she joined a group of students who would go on to form the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee. Baker ignited the fight in a generation of young Americans who would go on to risk their own freedom for the advancement and equality of all black people.
There would not have been a SNCC without Ella Baker. While serving as Executive Secretary for the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC), she ...
Ella Baker – #WomenYouShouldKnow
Ella Baker was known as the Backbone of the Civil Rights Movement. She led by listening. A master at group dynamics and responding to human emotions, she had a special gift of inspiring people to believing they could make a change. With her grassroots leadership, Ella advise college students in forming SNCC in 1960 and continued to teach techniques to activists. #WomenYouShouldKnow
The fight for civil rights and freedom | John Lewis and Bryan Stevenson
Civil rights leader and longtime US congressman John Lewis spent his life fighting for freedom and justice for everyone. In this illuminating conversation with lawyer and activist Bryan Stevenson, Lewis discusses the essential importance of voting, shares encouraging words of wisdom for the generation of young people currently organizing in the struggle for racial justice and tells moving stories from his decades of making "good trouble" -- at the Freedom Rides, March on Washington and in the halls of Congress. "When you see something that's not right or fair or just, you have to say something," Lewis says. "You have to do something." (This conversation is part of the TED Legacy Project. Recorded November 19, 2019)
Lesson Plan Grades: 9-12 ... Explain that in today's lesson, they are going to learn about John Lewis, who was first inspired by King, then a student of King's, and .
Jul 20, 2020 — This lesson uses video segments from the PBS series Finding Your Roots to explore the American civil rights movement of the 1960s through the ...
John Lewis' Pivotal "This Is It" Moment at the March on Washington | Oprah’s Master Class | OWN
U.S. Rep. John Lewis recalls what it was like to stand on the steps of the Lincoln Memorial in 1963 in front of 250,000 people to deliver a speech that would make history.For more on #masterclass, visit http://bit.ly/1ZQfeZO
Full Episode: "Remembering John Lewis" | Oprah’s Master Class | Oprah Winfrey Network
Before he was a U.S. Congressman, John Lewis (1940-2020) was one of the pioneers of the Civil Rights Movement. In this episode of “Oprah’s Master Class” the late American hero reflects on his life of activism and his friendship with Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. and offers wisdom for the ongoing fight for justice and equality.
ONE HANDSHAKE AT A TIME: How Whitney Young Changed America
"ONE HANDSHAKE AT A TIME: How Whitney Young Changed America" is produced by Bonnie Boswell, an award-winning journalist and the niece of Whitney Young. Boswell was also a student activist involved with the Black Power movement during the 1960s, often questioning Youngs strategies of negotiation. NASW staff in partnership with The Association of Baccalaureate Social Work Program Directors (BPD) have collaborated with Ms. Boswell to develop this teaching guide to help social work faculty focus on developing social work leadership. Using the guide, faculty can provide students with an understanding of Youngs philosophy of social justice and his ability to use social work strategies to achieve his goals.
In 1969 President Johnson awarded Whitney Young the Presidential Medal of Freedom, the highest award bestowed on a civilian in the United States. On March ...
"Someone has to work within the system to change it" was how Whitney Young often explained his own position and the National Urban League's role in the ...
Lincoln Institute remembers civil rights leader Whitney M. Young Jr.'s historical impact on Kentucky
A novelist and essayist of considerable renown, James Baldwin bore witness to the unhappy consequences of American racial strife. Baldwin's writing career ...
Notes of a native son: The world according to James Baldwin - Christina Greer
James Baldwin was an American novelist and social critic whose essays in “Notes of a Native Son” explored race, sex and class distinctions. -- In the 1960s, the FBI amassed almost 2,000 documents in an investigation into one of America’s most celebrated minds. The subject of this inquiry was a writer named James Baldwin, one of the best-selling black authors in the world at the time. What made him loom so large in the imaginations of both the public and the authorities? Christina Greer explores the life and works of James Baldwin. Lesson by Christina Greer, directed by Jérémie Balais and Jeffig Le Bars.
James Baldwin Discusses Racism | The Dick Cavett Show
James Baldwin has an open discussion of racial prejudice, civil rights activism and policing. Date aired - 5/16/1969 - James Baldwin
The Undertold Story of James L. Farmer, Jr.
On May 1, 2017, the Texas Historical Commission dedicated a historical marker for civil rights icon James L. Farmer, Jr. in his hometown of Marshall as part of the Undertold Marker Program. Learn more at www.thc.texas.gov/jamesfarmer.
Farmer Jr. January 12, 1920–July 9, 1999. Civil rights leader James Farmer was born in Marshall, Texas, in 1920. He spent his childhood in Austin but returned to Marshall to attend Wiley College, where he joined the team of "great debaters" coached by legendary teacher Melvin Tolson.
Farmer, James Leonard, Jr. (1920–1999).James Leonard Farmer, Jr., civil rights leader and founder of the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE), was born on ...
KVOS Special: The Color Of Black
interview footage with James Farmer, April 15, 1965 from KVOS Channel 12 Films, Center for Pacific Northwest Studies, Western Washington University WA 98225-9123. View additional details at: http://content.wwu.edu/u?/kvos,7
The NAACP and Civil Rights Activist Roy Wilkins: The Right to Dignity
Roy Ottoway Wilkins was a prominent activist in the Civil Rights Movement in the United States from the 1930s to the 1970s. Wilkins' most notable role was in his leadership of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP). In a half-century devoted to improving the social , political, and economic status of his fellow blacks, Roy Wilkins, the grandson of a Mississippi slave, became a skilled politicia n as well as statesman. Led N.A.A.C.P. for 2 Decades His singular dedication to the cause of civil rights began when he was still in college and culminated in his forceful and productive leadership of the N.A.A.C.P. during the turbulent two decades that followed the Supreme Court school desegregation decision of 1954. He retired in 1977 after his health began to fail.
Roy Wilkins (August 30, 1901 – September 8, 1981) was a prominent civil rights activist in the United States from the 1930s to the 1970s. Wilkins was active in the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) and between 1931 and 1934 was assistant NAACP secretary under Walter Francis White.
As executive secretary of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) from 1955 to 1977, Roy Wilkins collaborated with Martin ...
NAACP leader Roy Wilkins on Face the Nation
NAACP Chairman Roy Wilkins discussed the speed of school integration on the September 7, 1958 edition of Face the Nation. (CBS NEWS)
Arkansas Women's Hall of Fame: Daisy Bate
May 26, 1956 - Althea Gibson, First African American Tennis Champion
The lesson plans below may be printed out for use in your own classroom. ... Players profiled include Helen Hull Jacobs, Alice Marble, Althea Gibson, Billie Jean ...
Althea Gibson: First Black Tennis Champion - Fast Facts | History
Althea Gibson was a trailblazer in the enormously segregated sport of tennis. Find out more about her achievements and influence in this video. Explore the life of Althea Gibson: http://www.history.com/topics/black-h... Listen to live coverage of Gibson's '57 Wimbledon victory: http://www.history.com/topics/black-h... This Day in History: July 6, 1957: http://www.history.com/this-day-in-hi...
Althea Gibson: She Always Wanted To Be Somebody | Join The Story, Episode One
Althea Gibson broke tennis' colour barrier in the 1950s. With help from Venus Williams and some of Althea's friends, we relive the forgotten story of a the two-time Wimbledon champion in Episode One of #JoinTheStory...
Aug 25, 2020 — It's 70 years since the late Althea Gibson broke the color barrier, becoming the ... She began lessons with Fred Johnson, a one-armed coach at the ... Gibson was 18 years old when the doctors came up with a plan that would ...
Althea Gibson's 1957 Wimbledon Win - Decades TV Network
Althea Gibson became the first African-American tennis player to win Wimbledon in 1957. Her strength and speed allowed her to dominate the courts. Gibson's journey from pioneer to champion began in 1956 when she won the French Open. She won both Wimbledon and a U.S. National Championship two years in a row.
AMERICAN MASTERS | Althea Gibson - Preview | PBS
Watch the full-length episode at http://video.pbs.org/video/2365552987... (US Only) American Masters: Althea premieres nationwide Friday, September 4, 9-10:30 p.m. on PBS (check local listings). #AltheaPBS Discover the story of Althea Gibson (1927-2003), a truant from the rough streets of Harlem, who emerged as the unlikely queen of the highly segregated tennis world in the 1950s. Bringing a fierce athleticism to the game, she was the first African American to play and win at Wimbledon and the U.S. Nationals (precursor of the U.S. Open) — a decade before Arthur Ashe. Gibson’s life and achievements transcend sports, and are part of African-American history. The documentary explores Gibson’s roots as a sharecropper’s daughter, her family’s migration north to Harlem in the 30s, and her mentoring from boxer Sugar Ray Robinson, former New York City Mayor David Dinkins and others. Interviewees include Dinkins, Wimbledon champion Dick Savitt and Billie Jean King, who also serves as one of the film’s executive producers. Produced and directed by Rex Miller (A Chef’s Life, Private Violence). Watch more: www.pbs.org/americanmasters
1957 - Desegregation of Central High School, Little Rock, Arkansas
5 days ago — Examine the desegregation crisis at Little Rock Central High School and the ... Use the lesson plan “All the World is Watching Us”: The Crisis at ...
60 Years On, A Look Back at the Little Rock Nine
60 years ago, nine black students were escorted by federal troops into Little Rock, Arkansas' Central High School to integrate the school. Ernest Green, the first African American to graduate from Central, spoke to the AP about his experience. (Sept. 25)
Operation Arkansas, Little Rock, Arkansas
National Archives Identifier: 27641 Local Identifier: 111-LC-41033 https://catalog.archives.gov/id/27641
60 Years Ago: Pres. Eisenhower on Little Rock School Integration 9-24-1957
President Eisenhower sent federal troops to Little Rock, Arkansas to enforce the Brown v Board of education Supreme Court decision.
The Little Rock Nine Come Face-To-Face With Their Tormentors | The Oprah Winfrey Show | OWN
In the late 50's, the nine black teenagers who were sent to integrate the Little Rock Central High School endured relentless bullying, threats and violence from many of their white classmates. Nearly 40 years later, in a groundbreaking episode of "The Oprah Show," some of the white students who admitted they harassed the Little Rock Nine Came forward. Look back as the tormentors apologize for their participation, in one form or another, in the racism and hatred. For more on #oprahwinfreyshow, visit WatchOWN.tv/TOWS
1957 - Civil Rights Act
Resistance heightened in 1957–1958 during the crisis over integration at ... On June 19, 1963, the president sent a comprehensive civil rights bill to Congress. ... and played a crucial role in coalescing SNCC's activities with other civil rights ...
Little Rock, 1957 - Civil Rights Battleground
Eisenhower acts to enforce the rule of law by sending Federal troops into Little Rock, Arkansas, where a violent mob has prevented the integration of Central High School.
6. 1957 Civil Rights Act
A short video summarising the 1957 Civil Rights Act
Civil Rights Act of 1957. | 1957. Dwight D. Eisenhower and John Foster ... and comprehensive report of its activities, findings and recommendations not later than ...
“LBJ and the Civil Rights Act of 1957” Sean J. Savage, Saint Maryʼs College
Louisiana State University Shreveport International Lincoln Center Great Legislators/Great Legislation Conference
new and improved instructional plan for teaching the civil rights movement to your ... Watts Riots. White Folks Project. Historical Context. Civil Rights Act of 1957.
As a result of this re-prioritization of activities, you may experience a delay in ... The result was the Civil Rights Act of 1957, the first civil rights legislation since ...
King advises Nixon that the Civil Rights Bill of 1957, which had been ... committee gathered at Atlanta's Ebenezer Baptist Church to finalize plans for the ...
February 1, 1960 - Greensboro Woolworth Sit-In
From Segregation to Sit-ins: the Greensboro Woolworth Lunch Counter ... In this portion of the site, you will find a lesson plan and annotated links to other online ..
Legacy Of The Greensboro Four
As Barack Obama prepares to become the first African American U.S. president, Russ Mitchell profiles four you men who stood up for their rights at the height of the Civil Rights Movement.
Reflections on the Greensboro Lunch Counter
Civil Rights activists Joseph McNeil, Diane Nash, and John Lewis reflect on the history and legacy of the lunch counter from the F. W. Woolworth department store in North Carolina and the sit-in campaign that began on February 1, 1960. Racial segregation was still legal in the United States on February 1, 1960, when four African American college students sat down at this Woolworth counter in Greensboro, North Carolina. Politely asking for service at this “whites only” counter, their request was refused. When asked to leave, they remained in their seats. Their sit-in drew national attention and helped ignite a youth-led movement to challenge inequality throughout the South. In Greensboro, hundreds of students, civil rights organizations, churches, and members of the community joined in a six-month-long protest. Their commitment ultimately led to the desegregation of the F. W. Woolworth lunch counter on July 25, 1960.
1st February 1960: Start of the Greensboro sit-ins to protest segregation
In 1960 over a quarter of the population of the North Carolina city of Greensboro was black. The state had a range of segregation laws in place that generally left them with poorer quality facilities than their white counterparts and denied many the right to vote. This segregation permeated throughout daily life thanks to numerous Jim Crow laws. Determined to draw attention to the injustice of the situation, students Ezell Blair, Jr., Franklin McCain, Joseph McNeil, and David Richmond planned their simple yet effective protest.
Smithsonian artifacts: Greensboro Lunch Counter
Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution Lonnie G. Bunch III explains to CBS News national correspondent Chip Reid the personal connection that one of the most prized artifacts in the Smithsonian's collection, the lunch counter from a North Carolina Woolworth's that became a touchstone for the civil rights movement, holds for him.
community, see Carolina K-12's classroom management activities in the Database ... While many people think the Greensboro Woolworth's sit-ins were the first, ...
September 11, 1960 - Wilma Rudolph, First African American and American Woman to Win 3 Gold Medals in a single Olympics
Wilma Rudolph - The First American Woman to Win 3 Gold Medals at a Single Olympics | Mini Bio | BIO
Born in 1940 in Tennessee, Wilma Rudolph was a sickly child who overcame her disabilities through physical therapy and hard work, becoming a gifted runner. Rudolph became the first American woman to win three gold medals at a single Olympics in 1960.
Wilma Unlimited Lesson Plan. Goals/Objectives: ... Wilma Unlimited: How Wilma Rudolph Became the World's Fastest Woman by Kathleen Krull. Overhead ...
Despite these challenges, in the. 1960 Summer Olympics in Rome, Wilma. Rudolph was the first American woman to win three gold medals in a single game.
At the height of her career, “the fastest woman in the world” used her platform to shed light on social issues. Wilma Glodean Rudolph was born on June 23, 1940 in ...
Wilma Rudolph Beats Polio To Become Olympic Champion - Rome 1960 Olympics
Follow the amazing story of the USA's Wilma Rudolph who overcame polio to win the women's 100m and 200m events at the Rome 1960 Olympic Games.
Wilma Rudolph's Incredible Career | Olympic Records
A look back at the career of Wilma Rudolph and her remarkable gold medal haul in the 1960 Rome Games as part of our Olympic Records series.
1961 - Katherine Johnson calculated the trajectory for the May 5, 1961 space flight of Alan Shepard, the first American in space, as well as the launch window for his 1961 Mercury mission
Feb 24, 2020 — Biography of NASA research mathematician Katherine Johnson by Margot Lee Shetterly.
Feb 24, 2020 — Katherine Johnson loved math. Early in her career, she was called a “computer.” She helped NASA put an astronaut into orbit around Earth.
Katherine Johnson: An American Hero
Pioneering NASA mathematician Katherine Johnson has died at the age of 101. Johnson was part of a group of African-American women who worked on critical mathematical calculations in the early days of human spaceflight, as chronicled in the best-selling book and hit movie “Hidden Figures.” "She was an American hero and her pioneering legacy will never be forgotten,” said NASA Administrator Jim Bridenstine.
Feb 27, 2020 — Katherine G. Johnson was a NASA mathematician who helped send the first Americans into space and the first astronauts into space. She is one ...
History Through Hollywood
Hidden Figures (2016)
The story of a team of female African-American mathematicians who served a vital role in NASA during the early years of the U.S. space program.
Director: Theodore Melfi
Stars: Taraji P. Henson, Octavia Spencer, Janelle Monáe
Space Flight: The Application of Orbital Mechanics
This is a primer on orbital mechanics originally intended for college-level physics students. Released 1989.
Katherine Coleman Goble Johnson is an African-American physicist and ... In 1939, after marrying her first husband, James Goble, Johnson left her teaching ... She calculated the trajectory for the May 5, 1961 space flight of Alan Shepard, the ...
1961 - Freedom Riders
The Freedom Riders History
Read more at http://www.smithsonianmag.com/history... In the spring of 1961, black and white civil rights activists rode buses to protest the segregationist policies of the Deep South (Marian Holmes, Brian Wolly, Photos courtesy of Corbis, Getty Images and Library of Congress, Audio clips courtesy of Smithsonian Folkways).
The Freedom Riders In Anniston Alabama: Hank Thomas | MLK | TIME
Freedom Rider Hank Thomas shares his story of riding the bus from Anniston Alabama, challenging the segregation laws at the time.
AMERICAN EXPERIENCE: Freedom Riders: The Young Witness
Janie Forsyth McKinney was twelve years old when the Freedom Riders came through her hometown of Anniston, Alabama, on May 14, 1961. After local Klan members firebombed the bus, McKinney assisted injured riders. Watch the broadcast premiere of FREEDOM RIDERS on Monday, May 16th, 2011 at 9/8c (check your local PBS listings).
In this lesson, students will consider the courage of Freedom Riders in the early days of the Civil Rights movement of the 1960s, and how they themselves can ...
These programs are made possible through the generous support of Booz ... The Freedom Riders also knew that this simple act of riding on a bus or train, in ... What was the most important lesson you took from the panel discussion? ... Sources with Students (pages 44-45: http://historyexplorer.si.edu/PrimarySources.pdf).
American Experience: Freedom Riders
THREATENED. ATTACKED. JAILED. COULD YOU GET ON THE BUS?
Freedom Riders is the powerful harrowing and ultimately inspirational story of six months in 1961 that changed America forever. From May until November 1961, more than 400 black and white Americans risked their lives—and many endured savage beatings and imprisonment—for simply traveling together on buses and trains as they journeyed through the Deep South. Deliberately violating Jim Crow laws in order to test and challenge a segregated interstate travel system, the Freedom Riders met with bitter racism and mob violence along the way, sorely testing their belief in nonviolent activism.
The Riders' plan was deceptively simple: black. Americans would take ... The Freedom Rides help to highlight an essential civic lesson. William H. Hastie, the ...
FULL DOCUMENTARY - 1964: The Fight for a Right | MPB
By the mid twentieth century, Mississippi’s African Americans had suffered from nearly 75 years of Jim Crow discrimination. In order to break open the closed society and improve their lives, they needed to be able to vote. In the summer of 1964, hundreds of young white volunteers converged in Mississippi for a 10-week voter registration campaign. The results of their efforts still reverberate. Learn more at http://www.mpbonline.org/freedomsummer
The first activity of the lesson focuses on the Freedom Riders as a example of the interweaving of protest and music. In the second activity, ... Lesson Plan Details.
Meet the Freedom Riders Who Survived a Deadly Attack from the KKK | The Oprah Winfrey Show | OWN
It was dangerous and daring. Some even considered it a suicide mission. In 1961, courageous Freedom Riders, a group of nonviolent Civil Rights protesters, bravely risked their lives by boarding a bus in Washington, D.C., and heading straight into the segregated south.Original airdate: May 4, 2011 For more on #oprahwinfreyshow, visit http://WatchOWN.tv/TOWS
Oct. 1, 1962 - James Meredith became the first African American to enroll at the University of Mississippi
About James Meredith Ever since I was fifteen years old I have been ... than 30-thousand troops to ensure Meredith was enrolled and attended classes safely.
With a free NewseumED account, you can: Watch timely and informative videos; Access expertly crafted lesson plans; Download an array of classroom resources ...
Oct. 1, 1962 - James Meredith Enrolls at the University of Mississippi
This week in 1962, United States Air Force veteran James Meredith defied rioters and enrolled as the University of Mississippi's first black student.
In Martin Luther King's famous “Letter from Birmingham Jail,” he called James Meredith, the first African American to integrate the University of Mississippi in ...
Missing: lessons | Must include: lessons
James Meredith and Ole Miss
Description: In 1962, James Meredith became the first African American student admitted to the University of Mississippi. Learn more about education and civil rights at RealizeTheDream.org.
James H. Meredith, who in 1962 became the first African American to attend the University of Mississippi, is shot by a sniper shortly after beginning a lone civil ...
June 6, 1966 - James Meredith Shot During "March Against Fear"
This week in 1966, James Meredith, 33, was shot during his one-man "March Against Fear," a 220-mile journey designed to encourage black voter registration. Meredith survived, and while recovering, fellow leaders stepped in to complete the journey. In this edition of Moments in Civil Rights History, a collaboration of Comcast and the Equal Justice Initiative, Meredith rejoins the march in its final moments – and leads a crowd that grew to 15,000.
Aside from being the first African-American to attend the University of Mississippi, Meredith is noted for leading the 1966 “March Against Fear” from Memphis to ...
The Legacy of James Meredith
A short documentary honoring the legacy of James Meredith for the 2012 Ole Miss Alumni Association's Black Alumni and Family Reunion. Produced by Media and Documentary Projects at the University of Mississippi.
1963 - Birmingham Campaign and Church Bombing
While the Birmingham campaign was a successful model of nonviolent direct action protest, it did not ... including the bombing of the Sixteenth Street Baptist Church that killed four young girls. ... Lesson Plans (LP) and Lesson Activities (LA):.
Bombing of the 16th Street Baptist Church | American Freedom Stories | Biography
On September 15, 1963, a bomb exploded at the 16th Street Baptist Church as church members prepared for Sunday services. The racially motivated attack killed four young girls and shocked the nation. #Biography
16th St. Baptist Church Bombing - 1963 | Today In History | 15 Sept 17
On September 15, 1963, four black girls were killed when a bomb went off during Sunday services at the 16th Street Baptist Church in Birmingham, Alabama. (Three Ku Klux Klansmen were eventually convicted for their roles in the blast.) You can license this story through AP Archive: http://www.aparchive.com/metadata/you...
1963 Birmingham Civil Rights Campaign
Preview - Full Program Airs May 4, 2013 at 9:40am & 9:40pm ET - For More Information: http://www.c-span.org/History/Events/...
MLK's 1963 eulogy after the Birmingham church bombing
As President Obama looked for words to comfort the nation Thursday, he found them in a eulogy delivered by Dr. Martin Luther King Jr., after four young black girls were killed in the 1963 bombing of a Birmingham church. "CBS Evening News" anchor Scott Pelley reports from South Carolina.
No matter your race or religion; no matter your politics or social status – everyone paused upon hearing that the Sixteenth Street Baptist Church was bombed, ...
August 28, 1963 - Martin Luther King Jr. Delivers "I Have a Dream" speech in Washington, D.C.
August 28 1963 I have a dream speech by Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. Washington D.C.
Martin Luther King delivers the "I have a dream" speech from the podium at the "March on Washington" on August 28 1963 https://www.loc.gov/item/2013645765/
The March On Washington: The Spirit Of The Day | MLK | TIME
We remember the march on Washington for jobs and freedom, and the iconic speech by Martin Luther King Jr. from August 28, 1963.
How Martin Luther King Went Off Script in 'I Have a Dream'
Former Martin Luther King, Jr. adviser and speechwriter Clarence B. Jones talks to WSJ's Monika Vosough about how Martin Luther King's favorite gospel singer Mahalia Jackson helped create the "I Have a Dream" speech. (Photo: AP)
"I have a dream that my four little children will one day live in a nation where they ... included in this lesson, see the resource list at the bottom of this lesson plan.
Students study Martin Luther King Jr.'s "I Have a Dream" speech and discuss the rhetorical influences on King's speech, the oratorical devices that King uses in ...
Mar 14, 2019 — This lesson plan will challenge students to analyze the “I Have A Dream Speech” and write a speech that can describe a possible solution or ..
1964 - Civil Rights Act
be cited as the "Civil Eights Act of 1964". TITLE I—VOTING RIGHTS. SEC. 101. Section 2004 of the Revised Statutes (42 U.S.C. 1971), as amended by section ...
AP Archive: Civil Rights Act Of 1964
(31 Dec 1964) Civil Rights Act Of 1964 Congress passes the most sweeping Civil Rights Bill ever to be written into law. Five hours after the House votes on the measure, President Johnson signs in into law before an audience of legislators and Civil Rights leaders at the White House. He calls it "a turning point in history" and uses a hundred pens to affix his signature. Following tradition the pens are distributed by the President to government leaders and other notables present including the Reverend Martin Luther King, Attorney General Robert Kennedy, Hubert Humphrey and Everett Dirksen.
Teaching the Civil Rights Act of 1964
Join the Library of Congress education and newspaper experts to learn about the digitized historic newspapers available through the Chronicling America program. Explore teaching strategies for using the materials with students.
... to vote for the controversial Civil Rights Act of 1964, in this video from American Experience: “1964.” Despite ... Passage of the Civil Rights Act - Teaching Tips ...
On this Day: The Civil Rights Act of 1964
On July 2, 1964, President Lyndon B. Johnson signed the sweeping Civil Rights Act into law, bolstering the struggle against racial discrimination and disenfranchisement in the United States
(a) All persons shall be entitled to the full and equal enjoyment of the goods, services, facilities, and privileges, advantages, and accommodations of any place of public accommodation, as defined in this section, without discrimination or segregation on the ground of race, color, religion, or national origin.
'All the Way' cast read Civil Rights Act of 1964
The Civil Rights Act of 1964 is a landmark piece of legislation signed into law by President Lyndon Johnson on July 2, 1964, that prohibited discrimination in public places, provided for the integration of schools and other public facilities, and made employment discrimination illegal. This document was the most sweeping civil rights legislation since Reconstruction. All the Way, a riveting new play by Robert Schenkkan, is a compelling account of how Johnson worked with Martin Luther King Jr. to push that landmark legislation through a recalcitrant Congress.The DCPA Theatre Company is presenting the regional premiere of All the Way from Jan 29-Feb 28. Cast members recently took time to record the historic legislation for the video above.
1964 - Sidney Poitier became the first African American Male to win an Academy Award
Both an esteemed actor and a respected humanitarian, Sidney Poitier received an Academy Award for Best Actor for Lilies of the Field (1963) and an Honorary ...
Sidney Poitier Wins Best Actor: 1964 Oscars
Anne Bancroft presents Sidney Poitier the Oscar for Best Actor for Lilies of the Field at the 36th Academy Awards. Hosted by Jack Lemmon.
Born February 20, 1927, Sidney Poitier's pioneering career has had a tremendous impact on American culture. In the early '50s, he was the top and virtually sole ...
He broke through as a star in acclaimed performances in American films and plays, which, by consciously defying racial stereotyping, gave a new dramatic ...
Sidney Poitier - Filmmaker | Mini Bio | BIO
Sidney Poitier was born on February 20, 1927, in Miami, Florida. After a delinquency-filled youth and a short stint in the U.S. Army, Poitier moved to New York to pursue an acting career. He joined the American Negro Theater and later began finding roles in Hollywood. In 1964, he became the first black man to win an Academy Award for best actor. He also directed several films, including Stir Crazy and Ghost Dad.
How Sidney Poitier Overcame Racial Dogma | The Oprah Winfrey Show | Oprah Winfrey Network
Find out how Sidney Poitier overcame the prejudices of the era on his path to becoming a movie icon.